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  • Preventative measures: Areas surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, as well as large parts of Mexico itself, provide suitable habitat for establishment of Channa marulius (Lief-Mattias 2007). \nThe US Fish and Wildlife Service placed all snakehead fish in the Channidae family including C. marulius, on the federally regulated list of injurious fish in 2002, meaning their importation into or transportation between the continental United States and other territories in possession of the US is unlawful (Hoffman 2002). \nDecision support tools for identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species (fish, invertebrates and amphibians) have been adapted from Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) Weed Risk Assessment tool and are available online.Decision support tools for identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species (fish, invertebrates and amphibians) have been adapted from Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) Weed Risk Assessment. Please follow this link to access the decision support tool and kit. A Risk-assessment for non-native freshwater species in the UK is available for determining the level of potential invasion The assessment can aid resource managers in decision making when it comes to management strategies.\nChemical: Piscicides work by preventing fish from removing oxygen from the water. Chemical control using Rotenone and similar toxins would likely be ineffective to air breathing snakeheads and damaging to nontarget organisms except in closed situations. \nPhysical: Electrofishing and netting may provide some level of control of snakehead populations; however, eradication using these methods would be too selective for [larger] size classes to remove a population of snakeheads. \nBiological: Snakeheads are preyed upon by peacock bass and largemouth bass (Fuller 2009).LocationsCountries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Channa maruliusALIEN RANGE[4] united statesNATIVE RANGEbangladesh

  • cambodia

  • china

  • india

  • indonesia

  • lao people's democratic republic

  • myanmar

  • nepal

  • pakistan

  • sri lanka

  • thailand

  • viet nam

  • Informations on Channa marulius has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.Lorem IpsumLocationStatusInvasivenessOccurrenceSourceDetails of Channa marulius in informationStatusInvasivenessArrival dateOccurrenceSourceIntroductionSpecies notes for this locationLocation noteManagement notes for this locationMethod: Source: Start date: End date: Impact Mechanism: Outcome: Ecosystem services: Impact informationPredation: Snakeheads are highly predatory and some have the ability to travel overland to new bodies of water. The bullseye snakehead is considered predacious (Jhingran 1984, Talwar & Jhingran 1992, in Hoffman 2002), especially on other fishes (Schmidt 2001, in Hoffman 2002). It also has the potential to impact native crustaceans through predation (Fuller 2009). In one stomach contents analysis study (N=127) it was found that the bullseye snakehead consumes its own species, bluegill, mosquitofish, warmouth, peacock bass, lizards, bufo toads, small turtles, a rat and a snake (Cocking 2008, in Fuller 2009). Human health: Males, being territorial, will bite when they are caught (FishBase 2008c).\nRed List assessed species 0: LocationsUNITED STATESBroward County Mechanism[1] PredationUNITED STATESBroward County

Outcomes[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat[1] Reduction in native biodiversity [1] Unspecified ecosystem modificationManagement informationThe potential to eradicate or control snakehead populations depends on where they are found; if established in large lakes or river systems, eradication or control is expected to be nearly impossible; control in smaller water bodies depends upon the amount of vegetation, the accessibility to the water body, and the effectiveness of the control methods (Hoffman 2002). \nPreventative measures: Areas surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, as well as large parts of Mexico itself, provide suitable habitat for establishment of Channa marulius (Lief-Mattias 2007). \nThe US Fish and Wildlife Service placed all snakehead fish in the Channidae family including C. marulius, on the federally regulated list of injurious fish in 2002, meaning their importation into or transportation between the continental United States and other territories in possession of the US is unlawful (Hoffman 2002). \nDecision support tools for identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species (fish, invertebrates and amphibians) have been adapted from Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) Weed Risk Assessment tool and are available online.Decision support tools for identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species (fish, invertebrates and amphibians) have been adapted from Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) Weed Risk Assessment. Please follow this link to access the decision support tool and kit. A Risk-assessment for non-native freshwater species in the UK is available for determining the level of potential invasion The assessment can aid resource managers in decision making when it comes to management strategies.\nChemical: Piscicides work by preventing fish from removing oxygen from the water. Chemical control using Rotenone and similar toxins would likely be ineffective to air breathing snakeheads and damaging to nontarget organisms except in closed situations. \nPhysical: Electrofishing and netting may provide some level of control of snakehead populations; however, eradication using these methods would be too selective for [larger] size classes to remove a population of snakeheads. \nBiological: Snakeheads are preyed upon by peacock bass and largemouth bass (Fuller 2009).Bibliography34 references found for Channa maruliusManagement information Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999). The decision support tools are available from: -science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011] The guidance document is available from _guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009]. Clearwater, Susan J.; Chris W. Hickey and Michael L. Martin. 2008. Overview of potential piscicides and molluscicides for controlling aquatic pest species in New Zealand. Science for conservation 283. March 2008, New Zealand Department of ConservationSummary: Available from: -and-technical/sfc283entire.pdf [Accessed 20 March 2008] Copp, G.H., Garthwaite, R. and Gozlan, R.E., 2005. Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes: concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK. Sci. Ser. Tech Rep., Cefas Lowestoft, 129: 32pp.Summary: The discussion paper presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion.Available from: [Accessed 1 September 2005] Courtenay, Walter R. Jr., & James D. Williams., 2004. Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae)- A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1251.Summary: Available from: _circ_1251/circ_1251_courtenay.pdf [Accessed 23 April 2009] Gestring, Kelly B., Paul L. Shafland, and Murray S. Stanford. 2003. Annual Progress Report For Metropolitan Southeast Florida Canal Fisheries and Recently Introduced Exotic Fishes. 2002 2003Summary: Available from: -03.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009] Gestring, Kelly B., Paul L. Shafland, and Murray S. Stanford. 2004. Second Annual Progress Report for Exotic Fish Assessments 2003-2004Summary: Available from: -04.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009] Hardin, Scott, 2007. Managing Non-Native Wildlife in Florida State Perspective, Policy and Practice. USDA National Wildlife Research Center Symposia Managing Vertebrate Invasive Species University of Nebraska - Lincoln Year 2007 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, Florida, USA. This paper is posted at DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Summary: Available from: =1013&context=nwrcinvasive [Accessed 13 January 2009] Hoffman, P. 2002. Injurious Wildlife Species; Snakeheads (family Channidae). Department of Interior, United States Fish and Wildlife Service.Summary: An extensive report on snakeheads, including information on biology, ecology, and management. Howells, Robert G., 2004. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Snakehead Alert. Heart of the Hills Research Station, Ingram, Texas 78025; August 2002.Summary: Available from: [Accessed 13 January 2009] Maryland Invasive Species Resource Center, 2008. List of Prohibited Invasive SpeciesSummary: Legat status Available from: [Accessed 13 January 2009] Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montral (Qubec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.Summary: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001, the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG), a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced the Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity. This strategy identified responding to threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.Available from: English version: _07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010] French version: _07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]Spanish version: _07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].General information AFA (Asian Fishing Adventure), 2003. Thailand: Giant Snakehead Fish B&B Worldwide Fishing Adventures.Summary: A report on C. marulius in Thailand. Agbayani, E. 2002. Countries where Channa marulius is Found Worldfish Center.Summary: A reference on the distribution of C. marulius in Asia. Courtenay, Walter R. Jr. 2007. Introduced species: What species do you have and how do you know? Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 136(4). JUL 2007. 1160-1164.Summary: Abstract: The introduction of fishes, whether of foreign origin or from one part of North America to another, has been part of fisheries management for much of the past century, some introductions dating well back into the nineteenth century. Federal, state, and provincial agencies, along with aquaculture facilities and private aquarists, have all played important roles in this history. In recent decades there have been many unauthorized introductions via a rapidly increasing number of pathways, some of which are difficult to control. One very large problem in dealing with introduced fish is the inability of many fishery biologists and managers to identify native fishes in their jurisdictions, recognize introduced species, and appreciate the management problems that might result. Proper management cannot be done by those who have little knowledge of systematic ichthyology and who are thus unable to identify the fishes they are dealing with, be they native or introduced. I suggest a solution to some of these problems and recommend a curriculum change to better train future fishery biologists and managers. Courtenay, W.R., Jr., J.D. Williams., R. Britz, M.N. Yamamoto., P.V. Loiselle. 2004. Identity of Introduced Snakeheads (Pisces Channidae) in Hawaii and Madagascar, with comments on Ecological concern. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. Number77. 13 PagesSummary: Available from: [Accessed 23 April 2009] FishBase, 2005. Species profile Channa marulius Great snakeheadSummary: FishBase is a global information system with all you ever wanted to know about fishes . FishBase on the web contains practically all fish species known to science. FishBase was developed at the WorldFish Center in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and many other partners, and with support from the European Commission (EC). Since 2001 FishBase is supported by a consortium of seven research institutions. You can search on Search FishBase This species profile is available from: =5144 [Accessed 21 March, 2005] FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead Common namesSummary: Available from: =5144&GenusName=Channa&SpeciesName=marulius&StockCode=5382 [Accessed 13 January 2009] FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead IntroductionsSummary: Available from: =5144&GenusName=Channa&SpeciesName=marulius&fc=431&StockCode=5382 [Accessed 13 January 2009] FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead Snakehead Country listSummary: Available from: =5144&GenusName=Channa&SpeciesName=marulius [Accessed 13 January 2009] FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead Species summarySummary: Available from: =5144 [Accessed 13 January 2009] FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead SynonymsSummary: Available from: =5144&SynCode=25485&GenusName=Channa&SpeciesName=marulius [Accessed 13 January 2009] Fuller, P., 2003. Channa marulius Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.Summary: Available from: =2266 Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2009. Species: Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822)Summary: Available from: [Accessed 15 June 2010] Helias, J. 2002. From it s Native Asia to Florida-The Tale of The Cobra Snakehead. Carpe Carpio. Summary: A report on the history and distribution of C. marulius. Herborg, L., Mandrak, N.E., Cudmore, B.C. & MacIsaac, H.J. 2007. Comparative distribution and invasion risk of snakehead (Channidae) and Asian carp (Cyprinidae) species in North America. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Volume 64, Number 12, pp. 1723-1735(13)Summary: Herborg and colleagues (2007) predict suitable environments of 14 high-profile species of nonindigenous snakehead (Channidae) and Asian carp (Cyprinidae) species in North America based upon ecological niche modelling. Howells, R.G. 2002. Snakehead Alert Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Summary: A poster on several species of the Channa genus. ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Channa maruliusSummary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals. Available from: _topic=TSN&search_value=166663 [Accessed December 31 2004] Pam Fuller. 2009. Channa marulius . USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.Summary: Available from: =2266 [Accessed 13 January 2009] Pethiyagoda, R., 1991. Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. The Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka . Summary: A summary on the biology and habitat of C. marulius. Prasad, Bijay Bhushan., 2002. Trophic ecology of an air-breathing fish, Channa marulius (Ham.). Geobios (Jodhpur). 29(1). January, 2002. 9-12. Shafland, Paul L.; Gestring, Kelly B.; Stanford, Murray S., 2007. Florida s exotic freshwater fishes - 2007. Florida Scientist. 71(3). SUM 2008. 220-242. USGS. 2008. Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822). Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC).Summary: Available from: _circ_1251/html/channa_marulius.html [Accessed 13 January 2009] USGS (US Geological Survey), NAS (Non-indigenous Aquatic Species). 2003. Giant snakehead found in Wisconsin waters (News item). U.S. Department of the Interior, 2003-09-19. Walter R. Courtenay, Jr., and James D. Williams, 2004. Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. U.S. Geological Survey circular ; 1251ContactThe following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Channa maruliusCourtenay, Jr., Walter R.Organization:Research Fishery Biologist, USGS - Center for Aquatic Resource StudiesEmail:walter_courtenay@usgs.govAddress:7920 NW 71st Street, Gainesville, Florida 32653-3071Phone:(352)264-3519Fax:(352)378-4


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